CBL Architectural

Enhancing Instructors Capability to Assess Open-Response Using Natural Language Processing and Learning Analytics SpringerLink


Interrater agreements were calculated through Cohen’s kappa, which is a commonly used metric for chance-corrected agreement among any two raters. Cohen’s kappa values over 0.75 indicate excellent agreement, values of 0.40 to 0.75 indicates fair to good agreement, and below 0.40 indicate poor agreement (Fleiss et al., 1981). Lusted (1986, p.3) has argued that pedagogy involves “the transformation of consciousness that takes place in the intersection of three agencies–the teacher, the learner and the knowledge they together produce”.

natural language processing for enhancing teaching and learning

Our design of CoAST sought to address a gap in existing technical and cultural modes of mediation between teachers, learners, and texts through digital interfaces embedded in HE learning environments. In conventional models of teaching and learning, the relations between teachers, learners, and texts are often seen as mutually-exclusive interactions in the construction of reading comprehension (Alexander & Fox, 2004; see Fig. 1). The teacher reads, the student reads and the teacher and student talk, or the teacher reads, the teacher and student talk, and the student reads. This is particularly the case in HE learning environments where reading is typically undertaken as a solitary activity outside tutorial sessions. Arguably, the relationships are more integrated in primary-school classrooms where, for instance, texts are read aloud and comprehension is collectively engaged at the phrase, sentence, and paragraph levels (see, for instance, Scharlach, 2008). The essence of Natural Language Processing lies in making computers understand the natural language.

Intelligent analysis of multimedia healthcare data using natural language processing and deep-learning techniques

It’s kind of like getting the support without having to ask for it, if that makes sense. Cos I know I would probably struggle just a little bit, and it kind of saves time from needing to research what each word means because it’s just there, so it’s like the support’s already there. When you’re using the software always have the keywords highlighted like that. The Brookings Institution is a nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C. Our mission is to conduct in-depth, nonpartisan research to improve policy and governance at local, national, and global levels. People have different lengths of pauses between words, and other languages may not have very little in the way of an audible pause between words.

natural language processing for enhancing teaching and learning

Wordnet is a lexical-semantic network whose nodes are synonymous sets which first enabled the semantic level of processing [71]. In linguistics, Treebank is a parsed text corpus which annotates syntactic or semantic sentence structure. The exploitation of Treebank data has been important ever since the first large-scale Treebank, The Penn Treebank, was published.

User story 1: a typical interaction between a teacher and the system

Social data is often information directly created by human input and this data is unstructured in nature, making it nearly impossible to leverage with standard SQL. NLP can make sense of the unstructured data that is produced by social data sources and help to organize it into a more structured model to support SQL-based queries. NLP opens the door for sophisticated analysis of social data and supports text data mining and other sophisticated analytic functions. Chatbot assistants integrated with NLP capabilities are being increasingly used in educational settings. These assistants can provide round-the-clock support to students, answering their queries, providing learning resources, and guiding them through various learning processes.

natural language processing for enhancing teaching and learning

However, choosing the hyperparameters heuristically is advantageous from a sustainability perspective, given the compute resources that can be necessary for training and finetuning especially deep learning language models (Strubell et al., 2019). The pedagogical value of the video vignette lies in the fact that it presents an authentic, complex teaching situation that implements some known challenges in physics and science teaching. For example, the teacher does not adequately control experimental variables when letting the objects fall in the shown experiments.

Visualizing NLP in Undergraduate Students’ Learning about Natural Language

Et al. (2022) could show that utilizing BERT for reflective writing analytics in science teacher education could boost classification accuracy and generalizability. Also, Carpenter et al. (2020) showed that pretrained language models yielded the best classification performance for reflective depth of middle-school students’ responses in a game-based microbiology learning environment. Pretrained language models could not only help to improve classification accuracy, but also to identify natural language processing examples and cluster science teachers’ responses in unsupervised ML approaches. ML, and pretrained language models in particular, have proven to be effective and efficient methods to advance reflective writing analytics through supervised and unsupervised approaches. It is also unclear to what extent these ML methods could be used to facilitate analytic, formative assessment of written reflections, e.g., to extract quality indicators to differentiate expert and novice written reflections.

natural language processing for enhancing teaching and learning

With advancements in NLP, these chatbots can understand and respond to natural language queries, making them an invaluable resource in self-paced learning environments. To explain how the CoAST system can be used within differing contexts of a broader learning environment, we present two user stories and a series of images showing the usage of the system. In User Story 1, the teacher wants the class to read a subject-specific text which contains terminology beyond the expected ability of the students. The teacher uploads the text to the CoAST system (Fig. 5) and runs the word finding algorithm to identify potentially-difficult words (Fig. 6).

Survey on Natural Language Processing and its Applications

Stealth assessment of these skills may help teachers more effectively tailor instruction to individual needs. NLP involves a variety of techniques, including computational linguistics, machine learning, and statistical modeling. These techniques are used to analyze, understand, and manipulate human language data, including text, speech, and other forms of communication. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a subfield of computer science and artificial intelligence that deals with the interaction between computers and human languages.

  • For businesses, the three areas where GPT-3 has appeared most promising are writing, coding, and discipline-specific reasoning.
  • Empirical evidence supports that writing assignments, in general, can be utilized to enhance learning processes and evaluate cognitive processes (Bangert-Drowns et al., 2004; Graham and Perin, 2007; Kellogg, 2008).
  • Once such a system is in place, we can well imagine a world where automated metrics of teaching are produced in real time, and principals and coaches focus their time on helping teachers make sense of the information provided and identifying strategies for improvement.
  • Analytical, formative assessment would be desirable given that it can be used to provide feedback on how to improve task performance, rather than text quality.
  • Despite these successful applications, there remains the challenge that ML models especially in the deep-learning contexts require excessively large training datasets that are seldomly available in science education research.
  • Advances in computer software and hardware increasingly enable the effective and efficient processing of language data (Goldberg, 2017).

Finally, NLP algorithms provide personalized content recommendations, enhancing student engagement. NLP has revolutionized education and has the potential for further innovation. https://www.globalcloudteam.com/ The best known natural language processing tool is GPT-3, from OpenAI, which uses AI and statistics to predict the next word in a sentence based on the preceding words.

What is Natural Language Processing?

Consequently, we expected domain experts’ texts to have a higher degree of coherence between the sentences (McNamara et al., 1996; Crossley et al., 2016). A coherence indicator was calculated on the basis of the contextualized segment embeddings via sentence transformers and ML-base. Similar segments will be close in distance in embedding space, hence the cosine similarity between two sentences that are semantically related will be high. We calculated within each written reflection all mutual cosine similarities between all sentences.

In my own work, I’ve been looking at how GPT-3-based tools can assist researchers in the research process. I am currently working with Ought, a San Francisco company developing an open-ended reasoning tool (called Elicit) that is intended to help researchers answer questions in minutes or hours instead of weeks or months. Elicit is designed for a growing number of specific tasks relevant to research, like summarization, data labeling, rephrasing, brainstorming, and literature reviews. More research is also needed to understand how principals and teachers perceive automated measures and respond to the information they provide. However, our work shows that it is feasible to complement conventional classroom observations using a text-as-data approach. Beyond correlating our machine-generated measures with classroom observations, we also tested whether these instructional factors predict a teacher’s contribution to student achievement.

Challenges and solutions in NLP implementation

Brainstorming tasks are great for generating ideas or identifying overlooked topics, and despite the noisy results and barriers to adoption, they are currently valuable for a variety of situations. Yet, of all the tasks Elicit offers, I find the literature review the most useful. Because Elicit is an AI research assistant, this is sort of its bread-and-butter, and when I need to start digging into a new research topic, it has become my go-to resource. Until recently, the conventional wisdom was that while AI was better than humans at data-driven decision making tasks, it was still inferior to humans for cognitive and creative ones. But in the past two years language-based AI has advanced by leaps and bounds, changing common notions of what this technology can do.

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